Laboratory Services

Laboratory Services

Blood and urine testing is performed in a reference laboratory certified by State and Federal Agencies. Testing is determined by individual need and risk. The more common laboratory tests are listed in the document below.

Image Description Image Description Image Description
Chemistry Testing
This may be elevated in diabetes. As age increases, higher levels may be normal. A very low blood sugar may indicate hypoglycemia.
A substance in the blood that comes from amino acids. The level is influenced by diet, state of hydration, fluids, medication, or kidney disease.
A protein in the blood that is an indicator of kidney disease. The level may be influenced by diet, hydration muscle injury, or acute injury.
An elevated blood level under certain conditions may cause salt formation and lead to the development of gouty arthritis, tophi, renal stones, and gout deposits in the kidneys. The level is influenced by sweet breads in the diet, medication, stress, surgery, and alcohol, especially red wine. Diuretics and aspirin may also raise the level.
The sodium level in the blood is a reflection of total body salt and water and is affected by multiple clinical conditions such as nephrosis, cirrhosis, drugs, dehydration, heart failure, and endocrine disorders. Some variation from the normal range listed on the laboratory sheet is not unexpected.
This is one of the major electrolytes of the body and is regulated primarily by the kidneys. It is affected by drugs such as diuretics, changes in body pH, diarrhea, abuse of laxatives, renal and liver diseases, and endocrine disorders.
This is a chemical of the body that operates primarily in the buffer systems to control the pH and is affected by multiple pulmonary, renal, cardiac, and endocrine disorders. This can be affected by drugs such as diuretics. Some deviations from normal values listed on the lab sheet are not unexpected.
This is one of the anions of the body that forms salts. It is bound primarily to sodium and potassium. It is affected by fluids, drugs, dehydration, renal disease, and metabolic disorders. Minor variations from the normal range listed on the laboratory sheets are not expected.
This is one of the most important minerals of the body. It is used in neuromuscular and metabolic processes and is important to the heart. Women should maintain a dietary intake of 1-1.5 grams daily to prevent osteoporosis. Calcium is stored primarily in bone. Calcium levels are affected by intestinal disorders, diseases of the bone and parathyroids, as well as sarcoidosis and granulomatous diseases, and metabolic disorders. Excessive use of antacids can raise the blood level.
Phosphorous is the most abundant anion of the cell. Eighty percent is located in the bone. Abnormal levels can be associated with starvation, diabetes, intestinal disorders, antacids, alcohol, renal and pulmonary disorders. It is also affected by parathyroid level and neoplasia.
This is a computer calculated ratio. The value is influenced by the BUN and the creatinine, and is of importance primarily to the physician.
These are the indicators of thyroid function. T-4 (Thyroxine) is produced by the thyroid gland. T-3 is a physiological by product of T4 and is produced in the peripheral tissues. T-12 is a mathematical calculation of the T-3 and T-4. Thyroid levels are affected by drugs, surgery, inflammation, pituitary failure, irradiation, goiter, and neoplasia. This test is not routinely included in all diagnostic examinations.
This substance is released from the pituitary gland and activates the thyroid iodine uptake, synthesis, and release of T-4. Elevated levels may indicate hypothyroidism, or pituitary tumors. Undetectable levels may be associated with hyperthyroidism. This test is not routinely included in all diagnostic examinations.
This test is used primarily to screen for prostate cancer. Abnormal levels may be associated with benign prostatic enlargement, as well as inflammation, or injury to the prostate. This test is not routinely included in all diagnostic examinations.
This series of tests includes total cholesterol, triglycerides, and chylomicrons. Cholesterol is separated into high density (HDL) and low density (LDL), and very low density (VLDL). The ratio of HDL and LDL is important to help determine the risk for coronary artery disease.
HDL: (good cholesterol)- usually determined genetically. May be increased slightly by exercise.
LDL: (bad cholesterol)- may be significantly lowered by a low fat diet and, if indicated, with
medication to reduce risk.
This profile represents an indication of cardiovascular risk. (See comments under cholesterol and lipid profile.) High density (HDL), low density (LDL), and very low density (VLDL) represent the fraction of cholesterol. It is thought that a high HDL level offers more protection against coronary artery disease.
This test measures the cholesterol in the blood. Elevated serum cholesterol is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. The risk for middle-aged men rises sharply above 200 mg./dl. The risk for women is similar but lower. Conclusive evidence showing that lowering serum cholesterol reduces the incidence of coronary artery disease has been provided by the Lipid Research Clinics Trial. Fat and calorie controlled diets can reduce serum cholesterol by about 10%.
The test measures the triglycerides in the blood. Triglycerides are another form of fatty substance. The triglyceride level may be high if the patient eats within a few hours of the blood test. It may be significantly high with an increased alcohol intake. High triglyceride levels may be another risk factor for coronary artery disease. A commonly accepted range is 150 mg./dl.
This test indicates the serum iron in the blood.
Bilirubin is a metabolic degradation product of red blood cells. It is metabolized in the liver and excreted into the intestinal tract. This makes stools brown. High levels are associated with yellow skin or jaundice. Slight elevations are found in Gilbert’s disease-characterized by a decreased level of metabolic enzyme and is of no clinical significance. Major elevations are found in anemia, liver disease, obstructions, drug reactions and neoplasia.
This is an enzyme of cells that is located primarily in the heart and liver. Disease processes or injury affecting either organ may cause release of the enzyme. It is commonly elevated in hepatitis associated with viruses or alcohol.
This is an enzyme of cells that is located primarily in the liver and is elevated with alcohol ingestion, viral illnesses, or other diseases that affect the liver. This is a sign of Non A-Non B hepatitis. Once elevated, it can remain so for years.
This is an enzyme of cells located primarily in the heart and muscles. Elevations occur with injury or cell damage to either organ. Iso-enzymes help to determine if the etiology is heart or muscle. This test is not routinely included in all diagnostic examinations.
This is an enzyme of cells located primarily in the liver. It is a very sensitive index of hepatocellular damage, secondary to alcohol, industrial toxins, and diseases that affect the integrity of the liver cells. This test is not routinely included in all diagnostic examinations.
This is an enzyme found primarily in the cells of the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, brain, stomach, and red blood cells. These enzymes are classified Types 1 through 5. Iso-enzymes must be obtained to ascertain the etiology of elevation.
This is an enzyme located primarily in the cells of the liver and bone. Iso-enzymes can help determine the etiology of elevated values. Normal ranges vary greatly during periods of bone growth and may be elevated as age progresses. Female values are slightly higher. Abnormal values can come from liver disease and bone disease (but not osteoporosis).
These tests measure protein in blood. They are affected by diet, cardiac, liver, renal, and immunological disorders. Albumin is a carrier protein. Globulin helps fight disease. A/C ratio is a mathematical calculation.
This is a test for inflammation in the body. In minor inflammation, there is minimal elevation. In arthritis, inflammation of arteries, or neoplasm, there is a major el
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT
  1. Types and Percentages of White Blood Cells:
    These cells fight infection. A very severe bacterial infection will cause an increase in neutrophils. A viral illness may cause change in lymphocytes. Mononucleosis will cause a change in monocytes or lymphocytes.
  2. Red Blood Cell Morphology:
    This is a representation of the size, shape, and color of your red cells by visual image.
    a)MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume): This represents the total volume - size of your average red cell by measurement.
    b) MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin): This is the amount of hemoglobin in an average red cell by measurement.
    c) MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration): This is the ratio of hemoglobin to the size of your average red cell by measurement.
  3. PCV (Packed Cell Volume):
    This represents the concentration of your red blood cell in a sample of blood. This is known as the hematocrit.
  4. Hb (Hemoglobin):
    This represents the amount of hemoglobin (major protein) of your red blood cell in a sample of blood. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit may be decreased in certain types of anemia.
  5. RBC (Red Blood Count):
    This represents the average number of your red blood cells in a certain volume of blood.
  6. WBC (White Blood Count):
    This represents the average number of your white blood cells in a certain volume of blood.
  7. PLTS (Platelets):
    This represents the average number of platelets in a certain volume of blood. The concentrations of various types of cells help to document certain disease processes or anemias.
URINALYSIS

There are several components of urine which are checked to help identify disease processes:

  1. SUGAR:
    There should be none present. Appearance of sugar is usually associated with diabetes or a renal filtering defect.
  2. ALBUMIN:
    A trace of albumin is not unusual, especially in athletically active persons. Large amounts, +3 to +4 usually indicates severe renal disease.
  3. OCCULT BLOOD:
    This indicates the presence of blood in the urine. A trace of blood in women may not be abnormal, but at times may indicate cystitis. There should be no blood present in men.
  4. PH:
    This is the acidity-alkalinity of urine. It may range from 3.4 to 8.9. It can be affected by diet or medication.
  5. SPECIFIC GRAVITY:
    This indicates how concentrated the urine is. It may range from 1.005 to 1.030. It is affected by diet, fluid, diuretics, and may be abnormal in fluid problems of the body.
  6. WBC/HPF (WHITE BLOOD CELLS / HIGH POWER FIELD OF MICROSCOPE):
    0-6 WBC/HPF is not unusual. There may be higher numbers in urine infections, uncircumcised men, prostate infection or vaginal discharge. 8-20 or more WBC/HPF in an unspun urine specimen that is a clean catch usually signifies a significant infection.
  7. RBC/HPF (RED BLOOD CELLS / HIGH POWER FIELD OF MICROSCOPE):
    There should be no more than 0-2 per high power field in the urine in men. A few red cells per high power field in women may not be unusual.
  8. MUCUS THREADS:
    This is a common finding in urine since the entire urinary system is filled with mucus.
  9. CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALS, URATE CRYSTALS:
    This is a normal finding in urine and is only significant in cases of renal stones.
  10. BACTERIA:
    The finding of some bacteria in urine is not unusual. Significant bacteria with white cells in large numbers indicate an infection, or renal or prostate disorders.

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